the history of arctic exploration

Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. Martin Frobisher had formed a resolution to undertake the challenge of forging a trade route from England westward to India. The Americans relied on massive firepower and air superiority. Chancellor and his crew made it to the mouth of the Dvina River and the town of Arkhangelsk, where they were met by a delegation from the Tsar, Ivan the Terrible. Due to the threat of growing communism, the US gradually took a more prominent role in the conflict. Pomor activity in Northern Asia declined and the bulk of exploration in the 17th century was carried out by Siberian Cossacks, sailing from one river mouth to another in their Arctic-worthy kochs. The motives behind polar exploration were not merely adventure: from the 19th century scientific study of the Arctic landscape, ocean and climate were growing in importance. Founded by Aleister Crowly in the early 20th century, the Thelema religion is both intriguing and mysterious. Much of Africa also was unexplored by Westerners until the late 19th century and early 20th century. The Vietnam War lasted from 1955 to 1975. From 1576 to 1578, he took three trips to what is now the Canadian Arctic in order to find the passage. Geographically, though, it's almost as big as Germany. The Arctic is one of the most remote and uncharted areas of the world. It is important to note that exploration did not cease entirely at this time. His route was not commercially practical; in addition to the time taken, some of the waterways were extremely shallow.[13]. Interest re-kindled in 1564 after Jacques Cartier's discovery of the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Adriana Craciun is still asking questions. Many modern explorers, including Olympic skiers using modern equipment, contend that Peary could not have reached the pole on foot in the time he claimed. who made a voyage to a land north of Britain that he called 'Thule.' Exploring and discovering uncharted territories is always an exciting concept. While no one knows exactly how far Pytheas sailed, he may have crossed the Arctic Circle. Frobisher Bay is named after him. ), a riveting history of Arctic exploration that begins, appropriately, with the Inuit, who moved into that bleak and treacherous land after the Ice Age. The Northern Sea Route (capitalized) as currently officially defined by Russian Federation law includes shipping lanes falling within Russia's EEZ and extending from the Kara Sea to the Bering Strait along the Russian northern coast. Nevertheless, his tales were regarded as fantasy by later Greek and Roman authorities, such as the geographer Strabo. [1] Sailing past the Pillars of Hercules, he reached Brittany and then Cornwall, eventually circumnavigating the British Isles. Other notable feats of his include charting the Antarctic coastline and discovering the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ross Sea, and two volcanos (Mount Terror and Mount Erebus). The history of Antarctic exploration includes national and international politics, social change, scientific and technological advances, economics and even the exploration of the Arctic. The crew of the airship Norge (including Roald Amundsen and the American sponsor Lincoln Ellsworth) flew over the Pole on May 12, 1926. However, their claim to have reached the Pole is disputed.[18]. Expert author, Tony Soper, uncovers the history of the pioneers of Arctic exploration. Especially when the part of the world being explored is the Arctics. American Frederick Cook claimed to have reached the North Pole in 1908, but this has not been widely accepted. By: Beth Jones. But did you know he is also the third person to ever reach the South Pole? Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery, List of firsts in the Geographic North Pole, Online Exhibit Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library and Renaissance Culture, "Excerpt from A Larger Discourse of the Same Voyage", "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online", Albert Operti Correspondence with Arctic Explorers, William Hunt Manuscript and Correspondence on Arctic Explorers, Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Effects of global warming on marine mammals,, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 20:28. With all the amazing discoveries hidden in the ice and water, Arctic exploration can truly be considered a new scientific frontier. [2] Navigators were better able to chart their positions, and the European race to China, sparked by interest in the writings of Marco Polo, commenced. This activity began in the 16th cent. Sir Robert McClure was credited with the discovery of the Northwest Passage by sea in 1851[10] when he looked across M'Clure Strait from Banks Island and viewed Melville Island. It was Bering who gave their current names to Diomede Islands, discovered and first described by Dezhnev.[9]. Russian settlers and traders on the coasts of the White Sea, the Pomors, had been exploring parts of the northeast passage as early as the 11th century. However, we are most concerned with the history of Atlantic Arctic exploration here, particularly that which concerns the Svalbard Archipelago. The storied history of Arctic exploration isn’t over. Bancroft didn’t only travel to the ends of the world and collect samples. Hillary is also the first person in history to travel to both Poles — his first journey to the North Pole was in 1985 and accompanied by none other than Neil Armstrong! [1][16] He traveled with the aid of dogsleds and three separate support crews who turned back at successive intervals before reaching the Pole. Fri, Sep 04, 2015. [citation needed], In the mid-16th century, John Cabot's son Sebastian helped organize just such an expedition, led by Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor. He did it as part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition. Humans have been exploring the North American Arctic for centuries, beginning about 5,000 years ago when Palaeoeskimos were looking for a homeland, followed by the Thule — ancestors of the Inuit. [citation needed] Most notable is the 1596 expedition led by Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz who discovered Spitsbergen and Bear Island. As early as 880, the Viking Ohthere of Hålogaland rounded the Scandinavian Peninsula and sailed to the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea. No place on earth.. On January 17, 1920, a constitutional ban on the sale, importation, production, and transportation of alcohol made America a dry country. In 1986, she became the first woman to journey into the North Pole on a dogsled. When determining whether to take part in the Vietnam War on a grand scale, US leaders and political advisers felt they could quickly take over the conflict and control Vietnam. English and Dutch exploration of the Eurasian Arctic After a long period of inactivity following the decline of the Vikings, leadership in Arctic exploration was assumed in the early 16th century by the Dutch and the English. Greenland's early settlers sailed westward, in search of better pasturage and hunting grounds. He later explored further north into the Arctic and Hudson Bay for the Passage.[5][6]. The First Indochina War broke out between the communist North and the French-backed resistance in the South. The Scandinavian peoples also pushed farther north into their own peninsula by land and by sea. On April 6, 1909, Robert Peary claimed to be the first person in recorded history to reach the North Pole[10] (although whether he actually reached the Pole is disputed). In the first half of the 19th century, parts of the Northwest Passage were explored separately by a number of different expeditions, including those by John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross; and overland expeditions led by John Franklin, George Back, Peter Warren Dease, Thomas Simpson, and John Rae. Pictures; Andrey Golovnev, Professor from Ural Federal University, prepared a report for the International Northern Archaeological Congress. Sir Robert McClure was credited with the discovery of the Northwest Passage by sea in 1851 when he looked across M'Clure Strait from Banks Island and viewed Melville Island. He is one of the first and most famous Antarctic explorers in history. Some historians claim that this new land of Thule was either the Norwegian coast or the Shetland Islands based on his descriptions and the trade routes of early British sailors. His three years in the expedition only made him more curious about Antarctic exploration and for nearly 20 years he kept venturing into the Poles, recording anything he possibly could from these parts of the world. McCannon discusses polar exploration and science, nation-building, diplomacy, environmental issues, and climate change, and the role indigenous populations have played in the arctic’s story. [citation needed] They are believed to have survived until around 1450. Ann Bancroft is pretty modern in terms of Arctic exploration, and one of the few female explorers to venture there. The Healy seamount is a stunning find that rises more than 3000 meters off the ocean floor. Western parts of the passage were simultaneously being explored by Northern European countries like England, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway, looking for an alternative seaway to China and India. They were heavily criticized for not understanding Vietnam's culture and history. The motive was trade with the Far East. The Northwest Passage connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans via the Arctic Ocean. History of the Arctic exploration. In 1992, Bancroft visited the South Pole for the first time, becoming the first woman in history to travel to both Poles. However, the strait was blocked by young ice at this point in the season, and not navigable to ships. The progress of the Vietnam War was documented and compiled in a file known as the Pentagon Papers. They also explored north by boat, discovering the Northern Sea Route, as well as penetrating to the trans-Ural areas of northern Siberia. Part of their reasoning was that it was a small nation. Polar Pioneer and an offshore supply vessel Harvey Supporter off the Alaskan coast (Pic: Shell/Flickr) Some years later, Steven Borough, the master of Chancellor's ship, made it as far as the Kara Sea, when he was forced to turn back because of icy conditions.[7]. Eastern Australia was not officially claimed for Britain by Capt. Crary.[20]. T he faded sign is nothing more than a simple wooden board, a faint white hand painted on its center, the index finger pointing ahead. This diplomatic course allowed British Ambassadors such as Sir Francis Cherry the opportunity to consolidate geographic information developed by Russian merchants into maps for British exploration of the region. In the first half of the 19th century, parts of the Northwest Passage were explored separately by a number of different expeditions, including those by John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross; and overland expeditions led by John Franklin, George Back, Peter Warren Dease, Thomas Simpson, and John Rae. T he faded sign is nothing more than a simple wooden board, a faint white hand painted on its center, the index finger pointing ahead. It was not until in 1878 that Finnish-Swedish explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld made the first complete passage of the North East Passage from west to east, in the Vega expedition. On a 1596 expedition, he and his crew became the first western Europeans to survive a winter in the high Arctic after their ship became trapped in sea ice on the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. Documenting more than 2500 years of Arctic exploration, from the earliest seafarers of antiquity and the great naval and mercantile voyages in search of the Northwest and Northeast Passages, to the conquest of the North Pole and even beyond, A History of Arctic Exploration is the definitive account of expeditions made throughout the great Northern polar expanse. You can learn more about him through his autobiography, A Voyage of Discovery and Research to Southern and Antarctic Regions. Explore the long history of exploration of the Arctic – from 330 BC to the present. This led to the first ‘International Polar Year’ (1882-83), which saw scientific … Although these expeditions failed, new coasts and islands were discovered. Before Christians devote their personal time praying and sacrificing for a period of 40 days during the season of Lent, there is a moment for celebration. For thirteen years, the nation’s.. He was the first to identify Antarctica as a continent and not a group of islands and was also the first person to discover the northern magnetic pole (1831). Concise chronology of approach to the poles, Scott Polar Research Institute. While they flourished initially, these settlements eventually foundered due to changing climatic conditions (see Little Ice Age). Since the discovery of the American continent was the product of the search for a route to Asia, exploration around the northern edge of North America continued for the Northwest Passage. In the 10th century, Gunnbjörn Ulfsson got lost in a storm and ended up within sight of the Greenland coast. By 1828 they knew that no economically viable passage existed, while the Franklin catastrophe of 1845 ended scientific interest, although the search for Franklin charted much of the Canadian Arctic. On April 19, 1968, Ralph Plaisted reached the North Pole via snowmobile, the first surface traveler known with certainty to have done so. They then founded the settlement of Mangazeya east of the Yamal Peninsula in the early 16th century. Sea ice was a key factor in the development of the Viking immigration into Greenland and the ultimate demise of their settlements. U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Joseph O. Fletcher and Lieutenant William Pershing Benedict landed a plane at the Pole on May 3, 1952, accompanied by the scientist Albert P. This section of ANWR became known as the 1002 area, after a section of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. On 2 May 2007, BBC's Top Gear reached the 1996 position of the magnetic north pole (.mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}78°35.7′N 104°11.9′W / 78.5950°N 104.1983°W / 78.5950; -104.1983 (Magnetic North Pole 1996)) in a modified Toyota Hilux. At the time of the Vietnam War, world leaders feared that communism might spread from one nation to the next. [citation needed] In 1648 the Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov opened the now famous Bering Strait between America and Asia. A total of 58,318 US military personnel reportedly died in the war. Although it was officially a conflict between North and South Vietnam, direct US involvement resulted in 8,744,000 American soldiers seeing action over almost twenty years. In 1585, under the employ of Elizabeth I, the English explorer John Davis entered Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island. Historians even called this highly sought-after passage the “Arctic Grail” and characterized … They knew about the Arctic - named Arktos -The Bear, from the constellation the great bear and decided that in order to balance the world, there should be a similar cold Southern landmass that was the same but the opposite "Ant - Arktos" - opposite The Bear. These classified documents were shared with the New York Times by a Department of Defense employee. INTO THE ICE: The Story of Arctic Exploration User Review - Kirkus From Curlee (Ships of the Air, 1996, etc. For the last 500 years, mainly European explorers searched the Arctic for what they called the Northwest Passage—a potential sea trading route from Europe to Asia. This was a r… 12 1885. It then proceeded to travel under the entire Polar ice cap. This part of the world has always intrigued him, and he shared that interest with Sir John Ross, his uncle. On March 17, 1959, the USS Skate (SSN-578) surfaced on the North Pole and dispersed the ashes of explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins. The first people to have without doubt walked on the North Pole were the Soviet party of 1948 under the command of Alexander Kuznetsov, who landed their aircraft nearby and walked to the pole.[19]. Modern scholars debate the precise location of the new lands of Vinland, Markland, and Helluland that they discovered. Knud Rasmussen (1879 - 1933) led several Arctic expeditions. Pictures; Andrey Golovnev, Professor from Ural Federal University, prepared a report for the International Northern Archaeological Congress. [3] One widely disputed claim is that two brothers from Venice, Niccolo and Antonio Zeno, allegedly made a map of their journeys to that region, which were published by their descendants in 1558.[4]. Though England's efforts were interrupted in 1587 because of the Anglo-Spanish War, Davis's favorable reports on the region and its people would inspire explorers in the coming century. Thousands of years ago the hunter-gatherers of the Siberian coast pioneered east across the Bering Strait to colonise Alaska and northern Canada, eventually finding themselves in Greenland. Not long after, she crossed Greenland from East to West, and in 2001, she skied across Antarctica, becoming the first woman to accomplish both feats. The idea to explore this region was initially economic, and was first put forward by Russian diplomat Dmitry Gerasimov in 1525. The ship's captain on this expedition was Lieutenant Louis Palander of the Swedish Royal Navy. Fri, Sep 04, 2015. Here are three of the people who’ve explored the freezing ice caps and lived to tell the tale. Norge was designed and piloted by the Italian Umberto Nobile, who overflew the Pole a second time on May 24, 1928. The first persons to reach the North Pole on foot (or skis) and return with no outside help, no dogs, air planes, or re-supplies were Richard Weber (Canada) and Misha Malakhov (Russia) in 1995. [citation needed] In 1609, while in the service of the Dutch East India Company, the English explorer Henry Hudson sailed up what is now called the Hudson River in search of the Passage; he reached present-day Albany, New York, before giving up. Brought back to Moscow, he launched the Muscovy Company, promoting trade between England and Russia. A number of previous expeditions set out with the intention of reaching the North Pole but did not succeed; that of British naval officer William Edward Parry in 1827, the tragic American Polaris expedition under Charles Francis Hall in 1871, the ill-fated Jeannette Expedition commanded by US Navy Lieutenant Commander George W. De Long in 1879, and the Norwegian Fram expedition of Fridtjof Nansen in 1895. [1], Some scholars believe that the first attempts to penetrate the Arctic Circle can be traced to ancient Greece and the sailor Pytheas, a contemporary of Aristotle and Alexander the Great, who, in 325 BC, attempted to find the source of the tin that would sporadically reach the Greek colony of Massilia (now Marseille) on the Mediterranean coast. This quickly led to a wave of colonization. Since then, she has led lots of other exploration missions to both the North and South Pole. Davis rounded Greenland before dividing his four ships into separate expeditions to search for a passage westward. It refers to the historical period during which mankind has explored the region north of the Arctic Circle. This route, known as Mangazeya seaway, after its eastern terminus, the trade depot of Mangazeya, was an early precursor to the Northern Sea Route. Humans have been exploring the North American Arctic for centuries, beginning about 5,000 years ago when Palaeoeskimos were looking for a homeland, followed by the Thule — ancestors of the Inuit.European exploration of the same region began with the Norse in the 10th century and, after a short pause, was continued by Englishmen during the Elizabethan era (1558–1603). At the end of this trip, he walked into the city of Eagle, Alaska, and sent a telegram announcing his success. [citation needed] Not all the settlers were successful however in the attempts to reach the island. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on … These journeys were part of military explorations stimulated by the Cold War context. By the 17th century they established a continuous sea route from Arkhangelsk as far east as the mouth of Yenisey. Willoughby's crew was shipwrecked off the Kola Peninsula, where they eventually died of scurvy. The entire route lies in Arctic waters and parts are only totally free of ice for about two months per year, making it a very perilous journey. Survivors were eventually recovered. In 1648 the most famous of these expeditions, led by Fedot Alekseev and Semyon Dezhnev, sailed east from the mouth of Kolyma to the Pacific and doubled the Chukchi Peninsula, thus proving that there was no land connection between Asia and North America. His position was verified independently by a US Air Force meteorological overflight. From the local population, he heard news of the mysterious land of Thule, even farther to the north. A History of the Arctic: Nature, Exploration and Exploitation: McCannon, John: Books [1] Dangerous oceans and poor weather conditions often fetter explorers attempting to reach polar regions and journeying through these perils by sight, boat, and foot has proven difficult. In July 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who had written a treatise on the discovery of the passage and was a backer of Frobisher's, claimed the territory of Newfoundland for the English crown. His first journey to Antarctica in the 1800s was made possible thanks to his service as a British Royal Navy officer. In 1969 Wally Herbert, on foot and by dog sled, became the first man to reach the North Pole on muscle power alone, on the 60th anniversary of Robert Peary's famous but disputed expedition. Arctic Timeline from 2007-2008 "North Polar Chart, showing International Polar Stations, 1882-1883" from the Scottish Geographical Magazine Volume I, No. Exploration to the north of the Arctic Circle in the Renaissance was both driven by the rediscovery of the Classics and the national quests for commercial expansion, and hampered by limits in maritime technology, lack of stable food supplies, and insufficient insulation for the crew against extreme cold. Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth. [8] Eighty years after Dezhnev, in 1728, another Russian explorer, Danish-born Vitus Bering on Sviatoy Gavriil made a similar voyage in reverse, starting in Kamchatka and going north to the passage that now bears his name (Bering Strait). Though he was unable to pass through the icy Arctic waters, he reported to his sponsors that the passage they sought is "a matter nothing doubtfull [sic],"[This quote needs a citation] and secured support for two additional expeditions, reaching as far as Hudson Bay. The "Northern Sea Route" is defined as a specific portion of such routes. Ostensibly, McCannon's "A History of the Arctic" is a history of a geographic region, the waters and land that have fluctuated north of 60°N, from the beginning of the Pleistocene epoch roughly 2.6 million years ago to the present. He grew up in Greenland speaking Greenlandic and Danish, and has been called the "father of Eskimology"[14] and was the first Greenlander of Inuit and European descent to cross the Northwest Passage via dog sled. His first journey to Antarctica in the 1800s was made possible thanks to his service as a British Royal Navy officer. This part of the world has always intrigued him, and he shared that interest with Sir John Ross, his uncle. Adriana Craciun is still asking questions. One of the earliest and most important explorers of the region was Henry Hudson, a very capable navigator who made … Nobile’s second trip was in the airship Italia that ran into a storm on the return trip and crashed on the ice. New content will be added above the current area of focus upon selection These are the mental images conjured when many think of the Arctic and the history of its exploration by Europeans, Russians and Americans. Early Russian exploration By the end of the 16th century, the Russians had established a commercial route via the Arctic to the fur-trading centre of Mangazeya on the Taz River in western Siberia.

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