alpine fault earthquakes

"By comparison, the Kaikōura Earthquake in 2016 ruptured a total fault length of 200km in the space of about two minutes," said Holden. It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. “The San Andreas Fault, being on the opposite side of the Pacific plate, it is like our distant brother or whanau — family,” said Langridge. What will the climate be like when Earth’s next supercontinent forms? The Alpine Fault is one of the world's major plate boundaries and New Zealand's most hazardous earthquake-generating fault. Using radiocarbon dating, they've narrowed down the likely date of the most recent quake, measuring magnitude 6 or 7 (so potentially as strong as the Christchurch quakes) to between 1813 and 1848. New Zealand earthquakes cause total DEVASTATION The Alpine Fault runs right through the heart of New Zealand's glacier county on the country's south island. A rupture along the full length of the fast-slipping Alpine Fault on New Zealand’s South Island poses the largest potential seismic threat to the southern and central parts of the country. The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. “Because of the recurrence times of earthquakes though, you obviously have to wait a long time to see the effects of such fault behavior.”, “That’s why paleoseismology is a vital tool in understanding faults,” he added, “because otherwise we’d have only short insights into the past.”. How will the next Alpine Fault earthquake compare to the M7.1 Darfield earthquake of 4 September 2010? Discussion: Alpine Fault Rupture Mechanisms. "One of the real challenges with the Alpine Fault - because it is so bush-covered - is actually finding sites that have been cleared and therefore can be studied," said Dr Langridge. Langridge and colleagues said that there isn’t enough evidence yet to favor one of these scenarios over the others. The Alpine Fault runs 400km up the South Island, along the western edge of the Southern Alps. The alpine fault earthquake will alter tectonic stress distribution, and other faultlines may rupture in the days or years following it. Langridge said researchers in California and New Zealand have a long history of earthquake science collaboration and are learning from each other about the treatment of active faults and fault segmentation for seismic hazard models. However, the findings do suggest that seismic activity on the Alpine Fault is more complex than suspected, particularly along its northern reaches where the plate boundary transitions into another fault zone. The earthquake will last for about two minutes. "Given what we know from geological studies of the Alpine Fault, we're anticipating a major magnitude 8.0-plus earthquake, rupturing 500km of the crust, so the shaking will be felt throughout the South Island, but the intensity and duration will ultimately depend on what happens on the fault." The Alpine Fault has a high probability (estimated at 30%) of rupturing in the next 50 years. If the Alpine Fault does trigger another magnitude 8-plus quake in the near future, GNS says it will "have a major impact on the lives of many people", and likely be "one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand". on Haast and spreading north to Ahaura. The fault is a strike-slip boundary in which the Australian Plate and the Pacific plate are moving horizontally past each other. “Once we started working there [at the Staples site] the story really grew in large part because of the richness of dateable organic material in the trenches.”. In addition to the newly discovered quake, they found more evidence for three big quakes - one between 1084 and 1276, a second between 1250 and 1580, and the most recent big one, which they dated to between 1673 and 1792. Recent research has found that the average time between large earthquakes on the fault is 330 years. The Alpine Fault is overdue for an earthquake that could reshape the South Island, scientists say. The investigation found the mean interval between large earthquakes on the fault is 330 years and two thirds of the intervals were between 260 and 400 years. The fault, which runs about 600km up the western side of the South Island between Milford Sound and Marlborough, poses one of the biggest natural threats to New Zealand - especially the West Coast, Canterbury and Otago. Note: The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Seismological Society of America. The Alpine Fault is sometimes compared with California’s San Andreas Fault, being another fast-moving strike slip fault near a plate boundary. "One of the outcomes of this study is that you should expect a shorter recurrence interval of strong shaking at fault section ends. This is more recent than the 1717 quake, which has been estimated at magnitude 8.1 - nearly three times stronger than the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake - and shifted one side 8m relative to the other. This fault has suddenly moved or ruptured four times in the past 900 years, each time causing an earthquake of about magnitude 8. The effect of fluid differentials on an Alpine Fault earthquake is obviously significant but presently unquantified. But Dr Langridge and colleagues have now confirmed smaller quakes can happen on the fault in between the big ones. At Hokuri Creek, an exposed outcrop enabled the scientists to identify layers deposited by Alpine Fault earthquakes. The best paleoseismic evidence to date suggests the southern and central sections of the Alpine Fault, at the boundary separating the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, typically rupture during very large full-section earthquakes of magnitude 7.7 or larger. After trenching along the fault at the Staples site near the Toaroha River, however, Robert Langridge of GNS Science and colleagues uncovered evidence of a more recent earthquake along the northeastern end of the fault’s central portion. It has ruptured four times in the last 900 years, resulting in earthquakes of around magnitude 8, and is now considered highly probable to go again in the next 50 years. “One of the outcomes of this study is that you should expect a shorter recurrence interval of strong shaking at fault section ends,” Langridge said. The best paleoseismic evidence to date suggests the southern and central sections of the Alpine Fault, at the boundary separating the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, typically rupture during very large full-section earthquakes of magnitude 7.7 or larger. (2014) reported the probability of occurrence of an Alpine Fault Magnitude 8 earthquake in the next 50 years as 30%, resulting in an estimated $10 billion in economic cost. Evidence is growing the South Island's Alpine Fault, capable of devastating earthquakes of magnitude 8 and above, ruptures more frequently than previously believed. Reconciling an Early Nineteenth-Century Rupture of the Alpine Fault at a Section End, Toaroha River, Westland, New Zealand. Some studies looking 100 years out have concluded it's as much as 85 percent likely. The most recent earthquake could represent a “partial-section” rupture of only the central portion of the Alpine fault, a rupture of the fault’s northern section that continued southwest into the central segment, or even triggered slip from a rupture along the nearby Marlborough Fault System. Analysis of tree ring patterns in 2018 suggested it happened in 1717, prior to European settlement when there were few people in the South Island. In the past ~1000 years there have been four large earthquakes on the Alpine Fault and two large … Alpine Fault Dynamic Rupture Model. The 2012 paper suggests simply that fault zones are sites of high fluid pressure gradient, and that “dynamic pressurisation likely promotes earthquake slip.” Stage two of the deep-drilling programme is scheduled for 2014. Deep low-frequency earthquakes indicate migration of magmatic fluids beneath Laacher See... Alaska Centennial Nugget : Largest Gold Nugget Ever Found in Alaska, New source of energy-critical lithium found in supervolcanoes, Marine life recovery following the dinosaurs’ extinction, New trilobite fossil reveals cephalic specialization of trilobites in Middle Cambrian. Numerous experts say it will be the largest natural disaster of modern times in New Zealand. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. There isn't enough evidence yet to favour one scenario over the others, Dr Langridge said. Radiocarbon dating places this earthquake between 1813 and 1848. This means, for instance, that an Alpine Fault earthquake of M8.1 would release about 30 times more energy that the Darfield earthquake of M7.1. "An important outcome is that sites or towns near fault intersections and section ends may experience strong ground motions more frequently due to locally shorter rupture recurrence intervals," the study, published in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America this week, says. from M4 to M5) there is about a 30-fold increase in energy release. But there has been as little as 140 years and as much as 510 years between Alpine fault earthquakes. “One of the real challenges with the Alpine Fault — because it is so bush-covered — is actually finding sites that have been cleared and therefore can be studied,” said Langridge. Research has found a big one happens every 300 years or so, and GNS Science estimates there's about a 30 percent chance of another happening in the next 50 years. Related video: Alpine Fault overdue for magnitude 8+ quake - scientists. An Alpine Fault earthquake will likely rupture … The last such earthquake took place in 1717. 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